Adolescents often try out new ideas and push back against old rules in their exploration of their identities. However, identities shaped by trauma can be hard to leave behind because doing so can bring up deep, sometimes wordless fears and worries.

This training reviews current research about the effects of trauma, and organizes its impact along four aspects of development — physical, cognitive, social, and emotional. It then provides examples and suggestions about how to respond in ways that promote growth and healthy relationships.